Research

PUBLICATIONS

Review of D. Reich's Who We Are and How We Got Here : Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past, Pantheon BooksIn La Vie des Idées January 6 2020, ISSN : 2105-3030.

À propos de : David Reich, Who We Are and How We Got Here : Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past, Pantheon Books / Comment nous sommes devenus ce que nous sommes. La nouvelle histoire de nos origines, Quanto

Résumé: En plein essor, la paléogénétique étudie la formation et le croisement des populations humaines jusqu’à cinq millions d’années dans le passé. Si elle permet de mieux connaître les origines de l’humanité, elle ne doit pas faire déprécier l’apport des archéologues, historiens, linguistes et anthropologues.

Pour citer cette article: Ivaylo D. Petev, « Paléogénétique de l’histoire humaine », La Vie des idées , 6 janvier 2020. ISSN : 2105-3030. URL : https://laviedesidees.fr/Paleogenetique-de-l-histoire-humaine.html

Two related Op-Eds at Le Monde here and here.

An online interactive visualization of results is found here.

Abstract: Economic transactions on online peer-to-peer platforms depend on buyers and sellers revealing personal information to facilitate exchanges with the unintended consequence that the information may become a source for discrimination. Using original panel data we show evidence of substantial discrimination against Arab/Muslim hosts in Airbnb’s online rental market in Paris, France. Analysis of 41-months of online transaction data shows a substantial increase in discrimination following large-scale, deadly terrorist attacks in November 2015. Discrimination results in a foregone monthly revenue of at least 106 US dollars for Arab/Muslim hosts in the year before the November 2015 attacks, after which losses increase to at least 178 US dollars. Our results demonstrate the association of mass terrorism with a contraction of a large-scale market of the sharing economy, the cost of which falls disproportionately upon members of an ethnic and religious minority.

Citation (MLA): Wagner, Sander, and Ivaylo D. Petev. “The Economic Penalty of Terrorism: Increase in Discrimination Against Arabs and Muslims After Paris Attacks.” SocArXiv, 6 Nov. 2019. Web.

Résumé: Dans quelle mesure la sensibilité écologique des individus se traduit par des actes et pourrait ainsi servir de levier pour diminuer l’empreinte écologique des ménages ? Afin de répondre à la question, nous utilisons la dernière vague de l’enquête sur les pratiques environnementales des ménages (Epem 2016, CGDD/SDES) pour analyser la relation entre attitudes et pratiques. Une association positive et intense serait ainsi un signe fort du potentiel d’intervention des individus. Nos résultats peinent toutefois à illustrer cette relation. D’une part, quand l’association est positive, elle reste modeste ; d’autre part, les attitudes pro-environnementales ne vont pas nécessairement de pair avec des pratiques ayant un impact positif et réel sur l’environnement. Contradictoires du point de vue de leur impact écologique, les rapports entre attitudes et pratiques le sont beaucoup moins lorsqu’elles sont appréhendées au regard du sexe, de l’âge et de la catégorie socioprofessionnelle. Nous verrons comment les différences de socialisation, combinées à des rapports particuliers à l’espace domestique et à la mobilité, permettent de rendre compte de cette association et de ses contradictions apparentes.

Citation (MLA): Petev, Ivaylo D. « Introduction to the Symposium on Atkinson's Inequality: What Can Be Done? », Revue française de sociologie, vol. vol. 58, no. 2, 2017, pp. 177-179.

Abstract: In a context of heightened awareness of the dangers of climate change, the environmental impact of contemporary lifestyles has come under increasing scrutiny. Previous research has built solid evidence on the considerable potential individuals possess to intervene, their widespread willingness to do so but also the sizeable barriers they face to reduce their environmental footprint. In this study we investigate whether pro-environmental attitudes can serve as potent drivers of individual actions with consequential environmental impact. Bridging across work in several disciplines, we address directly the association between intent to act and a range of actions and scale up the analysis to a cross-country setting using European Union data and multilevel latent class models. We find a strong, positive association which holds beyond standard sociodemographic and country-level controls. We interpret the robustness of the intent-actions association as a positive signal on its likelihood to foster behavioral change with high environmental impact. A country's economic development and affluence affect the association whereas sociodemographic differences exhibit considerable variability on both intent and actions and are generally contingent on contextual factors. This, we argue, is evidence of the limits of mitigation strategies that focus exclusively on behavioral change without consideration of countrylevel characteristics.

Abstract: Despite the burgeoning research on lifestyles, we have surprisingly little evidence to answer one of the literature’s founding questions: Is the association between social class and lifestyles disappearing? I explore this inquiry with data from the past four decades. In analyzing the class-lifestyle association, I examine changes in the variability of lifestyles within and between social classes. Using data from the General Social Survey on informal social ties and formal membership ties to voluntary associations, I derive proxies for lifestyles and examine their relation to social class with latent class models. Results show that social classes’ contemporary sociability patterns are substantively similar to traditional descriptions from empirical studies on analogous data from as early as the mid-twentieth century. The association between social classes and sociability patterns shows no sign of having weakened over the past four decades. In fact, recent trends of civic disengagement and social isolation in contemporary U.S. society, which these data corroborate, reinforce class differences in sociability.

Citation (MLA): Petev, Ivaylo D. “The Association of Social Class and Lifestyles: Persistence in American Sociability, 1974 to 2010.” American Sociological Review, vol. 78, no. 4, Aug. 2013, pp. 633–661, doi:10.1177/0003122413491963.

Résumé: Emblématique de la société de consommation et de production de masse, l'automobile connaît en France une diffusion qui, tant du point de vue de l'accès à la motorisation que de la distribution des différentes catégories de véhicules (marque, modèle, puissance, ancienneté et statut d'acquisition), fait apparaître des différences importantes entre les groupes sociaux. Entre ces derniers s'insinuent de nouveaux types de clivages (multi-motorisation, progression de la place des marques étrangères, notamment). L'analyse conjointe des habitudes de déplacements et des caractéristiques d'équipement automobile des ménages motorisés en 2008 met en évidence l'articulation d'effets propres aux contraintes de mobilité et aux habitudes de déplacement, qui n'entament pas toutefois la robustesse des écarts entre groupes sociaux. Le statut d'acquisition des véhicules apparaît comme un marqueur social soumis à un cycle de diffusion et de banalisation que révèle l'accès socialement différencié au marché du neuf et de l'occasion. Il se combine au type de véhicule. Les voitures allemandes, en particulier les plus puissantes, apparaissent ainsi comme un marqueur spécifique de l'appartenance aux classes supérieures, en particulier chez les indépendants. Ces écarts soulignent les éléments de compétition statutaire et symbolique qui continuent d'entourer l'acquisition et les usages de l'automobile.

Abstract: The automobile is a symbol of the consumer society and mass production, the spread of which in France reveals significant differences between social groups, both in terms of access to automobiles and distribution of different vehicle categories (make, model, power, age and acquisition status). New types of distinction are appearing between these groups (multi-car ownership and the progression of the share taken by foreign brands, in particular). Joint analysis of the travel habits and automobiles of car-owning households in 2008 highlights links between the specific effects of mobility constraints and travel habits, although these do not in any way make the gaps between social groups any less robust. Vehicle acquisition status appears to be a social status marker that is subject to a cycle of diffusion and normalisation revealed by the socially-differentiated access to the new and used vehicle markets. This combines with the type of vehicle. German cars, in particular the more powerful ones, are thus shown to be a specific marker of belonging to the higher classes, in particular among the self-employed. These differences underline the social status and symbolic competition issues that continue to surround the acquisition and uses of automobiles.

Key findings: • With the recession, disposable income first rose and then, starting in the third quarter of 2008, fell precipitously. The falloff in disposable income was delayed because government transfers to households increased by 18.6% from the last quarter of 2007 to the last quarter of 2009. • Unlike prior recessions, the Great Recession is characterized by a decline in all consumption components, including nondurables. The Great Recession is also noteworthy because, unlike the five prior recessions, consumption remained below the pre-recession level even 15 quarters after the start of the recession. • After the recession formally ended, the Index of Consumer Sentiment recovered sharply for the top income quartile, but not for the bottom income quartile.

Citation: Petev, Ivaylo D., & Pistaferri, Luigi. 2012. Consumption in the Great Recession. Stanford, CA: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality.

Joined review of:

  • Tak Wing Chan (ed.): Social Status and Cultural Consumption. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010. 273 pp.

  • Tony Bennett Mike Savage Elizabeth Silva Alan Warde Modesto Gayo-Cal and David Wright: Culture, Class, Distinction. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. 311 pp.

Citation: Ivaylo D. Petev, Omnivores Without Borders: Two Readings on Distinction in Contemporary Culture, European Sociological Review, Volume 27, Issue 4, August 2011, Pages 548–554, https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcq053

Abstract: This dissertation consists of three stand-alone studies, which address a common problem in research on the social stratification of consumption: the empirically unsubstantiated theoretical discussion of trends on the topic. In response, the first study uses American data on different types of social ties to examine the evolution of the association between social class and lifestyles since the mid-1970s. It concludes that, contrary to much accepted wisdom, there is no evidence of decline in the association, and in fact, some evidence for its intensification due to well-documented recent trends of civic disengagement and isolation among Americans. The two other studies use historical data from France and the United States to explore the social stratification of a comprehensive list of spending practices. Both reach the same conclusions. First, the social structure of spending patterns resembles a multi-dimensional, homogeneous space, whose shape and stability challenge arguments associated with the relevant literature in economics as well as with sociological literature on class analysis and postmodernist theory. Second, spending practices are organized around classic forms of social distinction, whose grounding in material inequalities challenges arguments about the contemporary predominance of positional and cultural distinctions. Third, the observation of strong and persistent differences by occupation and education in spending patterns challenges arguments about the increasing importance of financial differences or alternatively about the irrelevance of traditional socio-demographic determinants to contemporary consumption. The overall conclusion of the dissertation project is that consumption practices are deeply embedded in the complex dynamics of contemporary institutions, whose postindustrial logic tends to reformulate rather than supplant industrial-era patterns of socio-economic inequality.

Citation: Petev, Ivaylo Dimitrov. 2011. Essays on the social stratification of consumption in postwar United States and France. http://purl.stanford.edu/td357bn3585.

[Abstention and Interethnic Conflict in Southeast Europe.]In Dominique Reynié (ed.), Les Européens en 2003, Odile Jacob, Paris: 2003.

[The Bulgarian Electoral Reflex.]In Questions d'Europe, Fondation Robert Schuman: 2003, Synthèse n. 114.